7 Phenomenal Books For Homeschooling Self-Directed Learners & Autodidacts

“If we encounter a man of rare intellect, we should ask him what books he reads.”
– Ralph Waldo Emerson

“Real books disgust the totalitarian mind because they generate uncontrollable mental growth – and it cannot be monitored.”[Bold Emphasis Added]
– John Taylor Gatto, A Different Kind Of Teacher, [1]

AMind

BreakawayIndividual.com
Zy Marquiez
February 15, 2020

Education is the most vital component of an individual’s repertoire.  Without it, the individual is like a ship without a rudder, drifting aimlessly amidst the seas of life.

For that reason it is imperative for individuals to make sure that they continue to educate themselves, no matter what stage of life they are in.  This is why the following list has been composed.

Each of the books that have been reviewed below offers abundant wisdom from which to learn from.  Plus, considering we are in an age where public schooling is about conformity, division, dumbing people down, and more, it would be shrewd for individuals to take their own education into their hands.

If you wish to read more about the books, click the link on the book titles to heads towards the reviews.

Book #1Socratic Logic V3.1 by Peter Kreeft Ph.D

Out of all of these 7 books, this is easily the most demanding one, but this book also has the capacity to net the most impact in your life given that logic may, and should, be employed at any given moment in life.  That is because there is no area of life that Logic cannot help in.

The lessons of this book will be useful every single day.  Although requiring considerable effort, the book is a much easier read than Aristotle’s Organnon, while still covering the core dynamics in a pragmatic format.

Book #2The Trivium – The Liberal Arts Of Grammar, Logic & Rhetoric by Sister Miriam Joseph Ph.D.

In the past, the Trivium was taught in classical education, and was the foundation upon the rest of an individual’s education stemmed from.  That is no longer the case however.  Because of that it is imperative that books discussing classical education such as The Trivium be given serious consideration since the Trivium is one of the leading reasons why education decades and centuries ago was vastly superior than it is now.

In fact, think of these names: Leonardo Da Vinci, Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Ayn Rand, Nikola Tesla, Sir Isaac Newton, and countless others.  What do they all have in common?  They are some of the most brilliant minds in human history, and none of them came out of a modern public schooling system.

As Dr. Joseph P. Farrell & Gary Lawrence note in their sobering, and yet noteworthy book Rotten To The (Common) Core:

“None of them attended a twentieth or twenty-first century American public schooling system.

None of them was taught by a teacher that had to obtain a teaching “credential” at an accredited – that is to say, officially “approved” – state or private school.  Indeed, some of them positively bucked the modern system by having been “homeschooled” by persons running small “schools” out of their homes.”[2]

Translation: all of those individuals became some of the greatest minds by employing traditional methods of education, methods that have been outright siphoned from public schooling, which is why I often make the distinction in separating public schooling from education, as the late Gatto so incisively stated, as they are not the same thing.

Just as a house cannot be complete without a foundation, an individual’s education, no matter the age, cannot be complete without knowledge of the Trivium.  The Trivium encompasses all aspects of grammar, logic and rhetoric.  This book is a thorough presentation on traditional grammar, which is vastly different than what modern schooling teaches, fallacies, syllogisms, a solid logic introduction, enthymemes, poetics, figurative language , all with a hefty dose of examples from which to learn from.

Book #3How To Read A Book – The Classic Guide To Intelligent Reading by Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren.

The title of this book is a misnomer, and many people overlook it because they ‘know’ how to ‘read’ a book.  However, reading isn’t the main focus of this book; it is information extraction and retention – getting the most out of the book, which is much more different than simple reading.

If there is one book you read, make it this one because you read everyday in life, and the more information we are subjected to, the more we will read.  Knowing how to get the most out of everything we read, every article, every study, every book, and every story and so on, will only help you get ahead of the curve.

Simply stated: this is a must-read book.  In fact, it would be a mistake not to have it because not following many of these tenets would mean an individual is only attaining fractional understanding of all subjects.  The book really is downright crucial and I cannot recommend it highly enough.  It’s been popular for decades, and for good reason.

Book #4Philosophy 101 – An Introduction To Philosophy Via Plato’s Apology by Peter Kreeft Ph.D.

If you want an easy-to-follow introduction to philosophy that is accessible to everyone but also stimulating enough to get your brain cells churning, get this book.  It’s a refreshingly unique way of looking at philosophy and should not be overlooked.  It is also much shorter than the previous three books above, and is incredibly accessible.

Book #5
The Complete Workbook For Arguments – A Complete Course In Critical Thinking [2nd Ed.] by David R. Morrow & Anthony Weston.

This book hones your critical thinking skills in a very incredible manner.  Seeing the failure of modern schooling, one would figure for a public school system that continues to fail, critical thinking would be at the top of the agenda to implement within public schooling. Such is not the case though, wherein this book comes in.

This book is affordable, has ample exercises, uses a very logical and reasonable approach that builds on itself and is easy to follow.  It’s complex enough, but not overly so.  It’s a book that’s referenced often and highly valuable.

Book #6
The Imaginative Argument – A Practical Manifesto For Writers by Frank L. Cioffi.

Now, this book by Cioffi brings a fascinating and refreshing outside-of-the-box perspective to argumentation to boot.  The author takes a rather unique approach I’ve never seen before, and one I wished was available in public schooling, but of course isn’t.  The book covers everything from essays, thesis, creative writing, paragraph design, audience considerations, writing prompts, fallacies and more.  If you’re a regular writer of any type, even if it’s not argumentation per se, I would still say this is a must read.  Or at least consider it.  As part of a homeschooling and self-directed course, this is definitely a must have though.

Book #7: Sherlock Holmes – The Complete Stories by Arthur Conan Doyle.

And here comes the curveball: learning Logic through fiction!

This one’s an outside-of-the-box suggestion, but for an incredibly reason.  Sherlock Holmes is easily best book from which to learn critical thinking in fiction form.  Nothing else comes even close.  If you have any suggestions to add, or better, I would really like to hear them because I am always open-minded and would like to read similar books in fictional form since it allows a reader to enjoy leisure time, while also honing the mind simultaneously.

If you haven’t read any of the Arthur Conan Doyle books, Holmes uses his usual analytical approach that’s incisive in logic and precise in detail to solve every single case he ends up getting involved in.  Some cases offer more for learning than others, but the book as a whole is something every person should read give that not only does it teach you Logic in a roundabout way, but it does so in an interesting way, too.

What we as individuals accomplish in life, especially if you want to live life to the fullest, is directly proportional to what we know and are capable of.  Without robust capabilities, an individual is like a leaf in the wind, merely flowing aimlessly in the wind without a chosen direction.

This is why it’s crucial to make sure your education stands on firm ground, and you are proactive about seeking it as well.  Without a proactive approach, we’ll only achieve a portion of what we could attain in life, merely growing into a fraction of our true boundless potential, thus not living life to the fullest.

It’s never too late to be proactive about your education.

Seek to better yourself, every single day; every single step, every single breath.

Seek to learn every day, from every person, in every instance, through every breath, in every way.

Not only will that help solidify your intellectual faculties in an ironclad manner, but it will also imbue your life with more meaning than you could ever imagine.

Life never stops moving forward, and neither should you.
___________________________________________________________

[1] John Taylor Gatto, A Different Kind Of Teacher, p. 82.
[2] Dr. Joseph P. Farrell, Rotten To The(Common) Core, p 4.

___________________________________________________________
If you find value in this information, please share it.  This article is free and open source.  All individuals have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Zy Marquiez and  BreakawayIndividual.com
___________________________________________________________

Suggested Reading & Viewing:

Are You Living Your Dreams?
What Is The Difference Between Education & Public Schooling?
How TV Robs You Of Your Life
How A Generation Lost Its Common Culture
Philosophy 101 by Socrates – An Introduction To Phylosophy Via Plato’s Apology By Peter Kreeft Ph.D.
How To Read A Book by Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren
A Different Kind Of Teacher by John Taylor Gatto
Logical Fallacies Employed In Every Day Life
The Imaginative Argument – A Practical Manifesto For Writers By Frank L. Cioffi
A Workbook For Arguments – A Complete Course In Critical Thinking by David Morrow
The Minds Of Men [Documentary] | Social Engineering & Mind Control
Manipulation Of Media Messages & Astroturf by Sharyl Attkisson
Mainstream Media Control
Socratic Logic V 3.1 by Peter Kreeft PhD
The Trivium – The Liberal Arts Of Logic, Grammar & Rhetoric by Sister Mary Joseph Ph.D.
Why Read The Classics?
Getting Things done by David Allen
Dumbing Us Down by John Taylor Gatto
The Catastrophic Decline of Public Schooling: 21 Facts Why School Performs Poorly
Mindset Musings#1: Venturing Outside Of Comfort Zones
Rotten To The Common Core by Dr. Joseph P. Farrell & Gary Lawrence
Lesson’s From Orwell’s 1984
Against Public Schooling – How Public Education Cripples Our Kids By John Taylor Gatto
Social Engineering 101
The Tavistock Institute – Social Engineering The Masses By Daniel Estulin
Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle
The Emergence Of Orwellian Newspeak & The Death Of Free Speech
What Is An Elite Curriculum?
A Mind Of Your Own – The Truth About Depression by Dr. Kelly Brogan
Social Engineering 101
Drilling Through The Core by Sandra Stotski & Contributors
What Is An Elite Curriculum?
Invisible Influence by Kevin Hogan

Book Review: How To Read A Book – The Classic Guide To Intelligent Reading by Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren | #BookReview #SmartReads #Reading #Education

A Mind needs a book as a sword needs a whetstone, if it is to keep it’s edge.”
– George R. R. Martin

“A man is known by the books he reads.”
– Ralph Waldo Emerson

“Read not to contradict and confuse; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.”
– Francis Bacon

BreakawayIndividual.com
Zy Marquiez
February 10, 2020

This particular book is a book that helps you extract more information from all types of reading, whether it is books, or otherwise.   How To Read A Book will help you think more effectively, more incisively and ultimately help you achieve more from the full spectrum of reading.

At the behest of Peter Kreeft PhD, the author Socratic Logic Peter Kreeft PhD, the following book came highly recommended in his list of critical content to further your own education.   Holding Kreeft’s opinion in high respect – and after doing some research into the book – getting this book seemed to be more than a safe bet.  In fact, it was much more than that, for getting this book has made me a better reader, writer, and communicator due to the logical and cogent way in which it explains its concepts, as well as how to extract the most out of reading proactively.

How To Read A BookThe Classic Guide To Intelligent Reading by Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren is an extraordinary book in various ways.  Not only does it teach the reader how to correctly read different kinds of books – by reading proactively, by rather reactively – but it also provides essential tools for the synthesis of other great – and more meaningful – pieces of literature.  However, How To Read A Book still features an extensive array of tools to enable individuals to increase the breadth and scope of their reading repertoire to a significant degree.

As a caveat, the authors do make a crucial distinction in the fact different type of genres should be read differently.  To say it another way, poetry, plays, or even fiction, will be read drastically different from nonfiction books.  This is something that’s not taught to individuals for the most part, and we miss out incredibly because of it.

Adler and Van Doren cover an extensive range of tools for reader’s to learn and implement – if they so choose – in order to maximize their understanding of the information held within books.  The book features a wide ranging set of suggestions that build on themselves throughout the chapters, all of which help the reader navigate all the way from the basics to the more advanced in seamless fashion.

To a great extent, the authors show the lengths to which proper reading can be taken too, as well as the depth that can be gathered by undertaking their advice.  As an avid reader and researcher, the information within the pages of this book have helped me considerably not only in pushing myself as a reader, but in understanding – and even merging – the depth and scope of information that is stated in various reading formats, as well as sifting out deeper implications when information isn’t obvious.

Additionally, covered within How To Read A Book are topics such as inspectional reading, systematic skimming, problems in comprehension, ‘x-raying’ a book, coming to terms with the author, criticizing a book fairly, reading aids, how to read practical books, how to read imaginative literature, suggestions for reading stories, plays and poems, how to read history, how to read philosophy as well as much, much more.

A significantly striking component of the book was the topic of syntopical reading, which is what the authors call ‘The Fourth Level Of Learning’.  In laymen terms, syntopical reading is the ability to  synthesize information from various sources, which paradoxically is not taught much, if at all, in public schooling.  Since synthesizing information is a process that yields incredible growth for all individuals, the information in this particular section was quite vital.

A book like How To Read A Book should be an integral piece in everyone’s education, be it self-directed or otherwise, given that an incredible amount of what individuals learn comes via reading, and that is no overstatement.  In an age where cognitive decline of education continues unabated, it’s those that push themselves into the realm of self-directed learning who will be the ones that will always stay ahead of the masses.  More saliently, self-directed education is crucial because simply, it’s what’s best for you as an individual, irrespective of what anyone else is doing.  It is something that is possible or anyone to do, of nigh any age.

The suggestions in this book seep into most if not all books [or reading] in some way shape or form.  When carried out, this undoubtedly filters into an individuals’ everyday lives proportional to how much its concepts are employed.  There really aren’t too many books out there that urge the reader to go beyond the conventional baseline of public schooling and education, but this book is certainly one of those precious few.  The authors certainly to seek to further one’s education beyond the bounds of modern schooling.

Please keep in mind, schooling and education are not the same thing, which is an important distinction because what individuals receive in America is barely a facsimile of education, and is in no way shape or form the true education of times past, given that America as a nation has strewn away from classical education.

Authors like the late award winning teacher John Taylor Gatto’s in his landmark Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling, Dr. Joseph P Farrell & Gary Lawrence’s Rotten To The Common Core , and Charlotte Iserbyt, who served as the Senior Policy Advisor in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, in her The Deliberate Dumbing Down Of America  all outline the deliberate dumbing down of America with incredible precision, and these authors by far are not even the only speaking at length about this disturbing trend.

At the end of the book the authors also graciously feature a list of ‘the greatest books of all time’ in their opinion, and after having read the list and having read a few dozen of them it’s hard to disagree.  This additional piece of mental pie is something that’s worth considering for an individual’s mental faculties.

What’s more, the authors state that there exist specific books which fall into the category of what they call ‘Great books’, such as The Illiad, The Odyssey, Organon, The Republic, Paradise Lost, The Divine Comedy, et al.  The authors postulate that only 1% of the millions of book out there – if not less – fall within this category of ‘Great Books’.  What makes those books special is that:

“…if the book belongs to the highest class – the very small number of inexhaustible books – you discover on returning that the book seems to have grown with youYou see new things in it – whole new sets of new things – that you did not see before.  Your previous understanding of the book is not invalidated; it is just as true as it ever was, and in the same ways that it was true before.  But now it is true in still other ways, too.”[1][Bold, Underline & Italics Emphasis Added].

Essentially, that the gems of knowledge contained within these books and the growth the reader will attain will not only be extensive, given the depth and immensity of the concepts within the book, but these books will teach you the most about reading and about life.  Equally, regardless of how many times one reads these books, they are so profound and demanding of the reader that one will always learn something from them.

If you appreciate books, reading, classical education, or are striving to demand more from yourself or even plan on building a home-schooling curriculum, GET THIS BOOK!  This book really is for everyone.  Educated minds have great foundations, and this book helps lay those foundations in an ironclad manner.

________________________________________________________________________
Footnotes:

[1] Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren, How To Read A Book – The Classic Guide To Intelligent Reading, p. 333.

________________________________________________________________________
If you find value in this information, please share it.  This article is free and open source.  All individuals have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Zy Marquiez and  BreakawayIndividual.com
________________________________________________________________________
Suggested Reading & Viewing:

Are You Living Your Dreams?
How TV Robs You Of Your Life
Logical Fallacies Employed In Every Day Life
The Minds Of Men [Documentary] | Social Engineering & Mind Control
Manipulation Of Media Messages & Astroturf by Sharyl Attkisson
Socratic Logic V 3.1 by Peter Kreeft PhD
Getting Things done by David Allen
Dumbing Us Down by John Taylor Gatto
The Catastrophic Decline of Public Schooling: 21 Facts Why School Performs Poorly
Mindset Musings#1: Venturing Outside Of Comfort Zones
Rotten To The Common Core by Dr. Joseph P. Farrell & Gary Lawrence
Lesson’s From Orwell’s 1984
Against Public Schooling – How Public Education Cripples Our Kids By John Taylor Gatto
Social Engineering 101
The Tavistock Institute – Social Engineering The Masses By Daniel Estulin
Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle
The Emergence Of Orwellian Newspeak & The Death Of Free Speech
What Is An Elite Curriculum?
A Mind Of Your Own – The Truth About Depression by Dr. Kelly Brogan
Social Engineering 101
Drilling Through The Core by Sandra Stotski & Contributors
What Is An Elite Curriculum?
Invisible Influence by Kevin Hogan

Book Review: Sherlock Holmes – The Complete Novels & Stories by Arthur Conan Doyle | #SmartReads

“A mind needs a book as a sword needs a whetstone if it is to keep its edge.”
– George R.R. Martin

BreakawayIndividual.com
Zy Marquiez
February 8, 2020

BreakawayIndividual.com
Zy Marquiez
February 8, 2020

Ironically, it was through the most serendipitous of circumstances that this novel was suggested to me.  Following a lengthy discourse with my economics professor a long time ago in which I asked what he thought was the best way to learn logic, he, in his classic fashion, suggests not a textbook, but Sherlock Holmes!  At the time, thought it was a joke myself.  Interestingly enough, he wasn’t joking.

Here, now, many years later, the adventures of Sherlock Holmes was how I was introduced to logic through great fiction to boot.

Arthur Conan Doyle’s magnum opus, Sherlock Holmes, features characters that are rather unique but very believable; the setting is always authentic, the mysteries abound, and there’s puzzles wrapped in enigmas all woven into phenomenal fiction as well.  This is one of the great reasons rereading this series is so easy and serves as a fictional fall back for reading, especially when a lot of modern fiction is quite lacking in logical substance.

In more modern times, there have been great mystery writers, and many imitators in countless ways, but none has truly come close to creating a fun, readable, witty, critically  thinking, logical, and intriguing series in the way that Arthur Conan Doyle did when the Sherlock Holmes series.  Those who attempt to follow in the author’s footsteps fall quite short, even when the authors have a template of what worked in the past.  This is why, after my fourth reading of this series, it’s still a great as ever, and nothing really compares.  And what’s more, there’s always something to learn from it, too.

Let’s boil it down.  Great fiction is great because it allows wonder and imagination to take flight, and sparks creativity like nothing else.  Sherlock Holmes definitely creates auspicious and believable adventures upon which any curious mind would Love to venture.

This fictional series does way more than that though.  If it had only sparked imagination, it would have been a really good, or even a great series.  But even so, it offers so much more.  Sherlock Holmes is a veritable crashcourse into how to critically think and employ logic, wrapped up in a fantastic fictional package that is as timeless as it is robust.

For me, this book falls within what Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren referred to as the top tier of books.  As the authors note in their landmark How To Read A Book – The Classic Guide To Intelligent Reading:

“Of the few thousand such books there is a much smaller number – here the number is probably less than a hundred – that cannot be exhausted by even the very best reading you can manage.  How do you recognize this?  Again it is rather mysterious, but when you have closed the book after reading analytically to the best of your ability, and place it back on the shelf, you have a sneaking suspicion that there is more there than you got….In fact, you cannot put your finger on it, but you know it is there.  You find that you cannot forget the book, that you keep thinking about it and your reaction to it.  Finally, you return to it.  And remarkable things happen.”[1][Bold & Underline Emphasis Added]

Just as so:

“…if the book belongs to the highest class – the very small number of inexhaustible books – you discover on returning that the book seems to have grown with youYou see new things in it – whole new sets of new things – that you did not see before.  Your previous understanding of the book is not invalidated; it is just as true as it ever was, and in the same ways that it was true before.  But now it is true in still other ways, too.”[2] [Bold & Underline Emphasis Added]

For me, this book – all of its fictional stories – accomplishes all of the above and more.

Granted, there are many other books in classical and even modern literature that offer many life lessons. However, none teach the individual the foundation for critical thinking and logic like Sherlock Holmes does.  This is why this stands above and beyond countless other books when it comes to those two crucial points.

If you homeschool, if you’re an autodidact, a self-directed learner, or simply someone that wants to read a great book, then read this.  You will not regret it.

________________________________________________________________________
Footnotes:

[1] Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren, How To Read A Book – The Classic Guide To Intelligent Reading, p. 333.
[2] Ibid., p. 333.

________________________________________________________________________
If you find value in this information, please share it.  This article is free and open source.  All individuals have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Zy Marquiez and  BreakawayIndividual.com
________________________________________________________________________
Suggested Reading & Viewing:

Logical Fallacies Employed In Every Day Life
The Minds Of Men [Documentary] | Social Engineering & Mind Control
Manipulation Of Media Messages & Astroturf by Sharyl Attkisson
Socratic Logic V 3.1 by Peter Kreeft PhD
Getting Things done by David Allen
Dumbing Us Down by John Taylor Gatto
The Catastrophic Decline of Public Schooling: 21 Facts Why School Performs Poorly
Mindset Musings#1: Venturing Outside Of Comfort Zones
Rotten To The Common Core by Dr. Joseph P. Farrell & Gary Lawrence
Lesson’s From Orwell’s 1984
Against Public Schooling – How Public Education Cripples Our Kids By John Taylor Gatto
Social Engineering 101
The Tavistock Institute – Social Engineering The Masses By Daniel Estulin
The Emergence Of Orwellian Newspeak & The Death Of Free Speech
What Is An Elite Curriculum?
A Mind Of Your Own – The Truth About Depression by Dr. Kelly Brogan
Social Engineering 101
Drilling Through The Core by Sandra Stotski & Contributors
What Is An Elite Curriculum?
Invisible Influence by Kevin Hogan

Book Review: Socratic Logic [V. 3.1] by Peter Kreeft Ph.D. | #Books #Smartreads #Education

An Indispensable Piece For The Autodidact; A Vital Component To Education For Individuals Of All Ages

BreakawayIndividual.com
Zy Marquiez
January 31, 2020

“Profound simplicity = common sense.  – The height of cultivation runs to simplicity of common sense; the straightest, most logical way.”[1]

“The deepest sin against the human mind is to believe things without evidence.  Science is simply common sense at its best – that is, rigidly accurate information, and merciless to fallacy in logic.”
– Thomas Huxley

Socratic Logic by Peter Kreeft PhD is an essential book because it has the capacity of helping every single individual in countless ways.  This is because logic allows an individual to cast a firm foundation for all education that follows, which junctions into every other topic an individual will learn from in life.

Likewise, Logic allows for individuals to streamline their thought process – to think in sequential order, thus accomplishing more in the most efficient way that is logically sound.  Further, Logic can help individuals read more thoroughly, process information more clearly and effectively, express information in a more in-depth and incisive fashion, and features myriad other tangential benefits as well.  There are no limits to how much Logic can help in, for there are no limits to learning.

And given the unfortunate circumstance that Logic has been all but removed from most curricula in modern Academia, the benefits of Logic are not being experienced by nigh anyone in modern culture. This means that individuals must be proactive in their ventures to not only study and learn Logic, but seek to master it as it was once taught in schooling if they are to implement this knowledge and skillset into their repertoire.

One of the greatest strengths of Socratic Logic is that it showcases a very in-depth approach into learning Logic, but better yet, in an easy-to-digest and wholly accessible manner.  Another strength of this book is that the lessons woven within its pages are not only thorough enough, but clearly divided in very user-friendly chapters that are not only flexible, but follow common sense and build upon themselves.

Describing the book as ‘user-friendly’ or ‘accessible’ might be a misnomer, but when juxtaposed to The Organon by Aristotle, which is a vastly more complex and demanding read, this book is a ‘walk in the park’.  This ease of accessibility is one of its countless benefits of this book.

Kreeft makes it a point to give individuals many of the mental tools they might need to comprehend traditional Logic as it was once taught within schooling in the past.  The book is sprinkled generously with many real world examples, historical incidents, significant quotes and instructive issues that allow for a latitude of learning that is robust, and yet significant.  Moreover, this book is quite practical in its application once the concepts are mastered and implemented into one’s repertoire.

The book also features a differentiation between the basic sections (B) and the philosophical sections (P) which are marked in the table of contents.  This helps the reader immensely in focusing on whatever specific area the reader might want to hone their skills in.

Also of note, the book – as mentioned by Kreef and corroborated by personal use – may be used in at least 10 different ways:

[1] the basics only
[2] the basic sections plus the philosophical sections
[3] the basic sections plus the more advanced sections in logic
[4] the basic sections plus the practical application sections
[5] the basic sections plus any two of these three additions
[6] all of the book
[7] all or some of it supplemented by a text in symbolic logic
[8] all or some of it supplemented by a text in inductive logic
[9] all or some of it supplemented by a text in rhetoric or informal logic
[10] all or some of it supplement by readings in and applications to the great philosophers[2]

What one gathers from the book will greatly depend on how much time one chooses to spend learning the tenets from it. Socratic Logic may be studied independently for an autodidact, as part of personal self-directed learning system, or it can even be studied in single class lessons, once a week  lessons, semester formats, etc.

A healthy amount of exercises throughout the book further buttress one’s understanding of the subject matter. This multifarious approach definitely helps individuals attain a deeper understanding of the concepts shown in the book with utmost precision.

Taking all that into account, Socratic Logic should be taught to everyone not only because it allows individuals to set a firm foundation for all learning that follows, but also because our society lacks Logic in myriad ways.  This glaring issue would go to explain why many of the societal issues that we are experiencing are happening in the first place.

In an age where information abounds, not being educated in Logic and its foundational aspects – that have the capacity to affect every crevice of our lives – is a serious mistake, for understanding cannot be attained without a firm foundation in education, and a firm foundation in education cannot be achieved without Logic.

And if conventional schooling continues on the downhill grade it’s currently in, knowledge in areas such as this will be worth more than its weight in gold, and that’s not an understatement. With the student loans costing over a trillion dollars collectively and real education dissipating right before our eyes within the conventional establishment, taking your education into your own hands is not only responsible and commonsensical, but downright crucial.

To seek or further one’s education is a choice, and luckily Socratic Logic makes it an easy to choice to make.

____________________________________________________________________
Footnotes:

[1] Bruce Lee, Edited by John Little, Striking Thoughts – Bruce Lee’s Wisdom For Daily Wisdom, p. 189.
[2] Peter Kreeft Ph.D., Socratic Logic, p. 14.

___________________________________________________________
If you find value in this information, please share it.  This article is free and open source.  All individuals have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Zy Marquiez and  BreakawayIndividual.com
___________________________________________________________
About The Author:

Zy Marquiez is an avid book reviewer, inquirer, an open-minded skeptic, yogi, and freelance writer who aims at empowering individuals while also studying and regularly mirroring subjects like Consciousness, Education, Creativity, The Individual, Ancient History & Ancient Civilizations, Forbidden Archaeology, Big Pharma, Alternative Health, Space, Geoengineering, Social Engineering, Propaganda, and much more.

Logical Fallacies Employed In Every Day Life | #Logic

Logic
BreakawayIndividual.com
Zy Marquiez
March 23, 2019

For the record, these were not created by me.  They are just being shown for individuals to be able to identify them in their daily lives.

What is a logical fallacy?

A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning. Strong arguments are void of logical fallacies, whilst arguments that are weak tend to use logical fallacies to appear stronger than they are. They’re like tricks or illusions of thought, and they’re often very sneakily used by politicians, media, and others to fool people. Below follow some of the more common fallacies.

Strawman
Misrepresenting Someone’s Argument To Make It Easier To Attack
By exaggerating, misrepresenting, or just completely fabricating someone’s argument, it’s much easier to prevent your own position as being reasonable, but this is kind of dishonest and serves to undermine honest rational debate.
Example: After will said we should put more money into health and education, Warren responded by saying he was surprised that Will hates our country so much that he wants to leave it defenseless by cutting military spending.

Slippery Slope
Asserting That If We Allow A to happen, then Z will consequently happen too, therefore A should not happen.
The problem with this reasoning is that it avoids engaging with the issue at hand, and instead shifts attention to extreme hypotheticals. Because no proof is presented to show that such extreme hypotheticals will in fact occur, this fallacy has the form of an appeal to emotion fallacy by leveraging fear. In effect the argument at hand is unfairly tainted by unsubstantiated conjecture.
Example: Colin Closet asserts that if we allow same-sex couples to marry, then the next thing we know we’ll be allowing people to marry their parents, their cars and even monkeys.

False Cause
Presuming that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other.
Example
: Pointing to a fancy chart, a Senator shows how temperatures have been rising over the past few centuries, whilst at the same time the numbers of terrorist attacks have been increasing; thus global warming causes terrorism. [Don’t believe me? Look it up – an actual senator that said this.]

Ad Hominem
Attacking your opponent’s character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument.
Example: After Sally presents an eloquent and compelling case for a more equitable taxation system, Sam asks the audience whether we should believe anything from a woman who isn’t married, was once arrested, and smells a bit weird.

Special Pleading
Moving the goalposts to create exceptions when a claim is shown to be false.
Example: Edward Johns claimed to be psychic, but when his ‘abilities’ were tested under proper scientific conditions, they magically disappeared. Edward explained this saying that one had to have faith in his abilities for them to work.

Loaded Question
Asking a question that has an assumption built into it so that it can’t be answered without appearing guilty.
Example: Grace and Helen were both romantically interested in Brad. One day, with Brad sitting within earshot, Grace asked in an inquisitive tone whether Helen was having any problems with a fungal infection.

The Gambler’s Fallacy
Believing that ‘runs’ occur to statistically independent phenomena such as roulette wheel spins.
Example: Red had come up six times in a row on the roulette wheel, so Greg knew that it was close to certain that black would be next up. Suffering an economic form of natural selection with this thinking, he soon lost all of his savings.

Bandwagon
Appealing to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation.
Example: Shamus pointed a drunken finger at Sean and asked him to explain how so many people could believe in leprechauns if they’re only a silly old superstition. Sean, however, had had a few too many Guinness himself and fell off his chair.

Black-Or-White
Where two alternative states are presented as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist.
Example: Whilst rallying support for his plan to fundamentally undermine citizens’ rights, the Supreme Leader told the people they were either on his side, or on the side of the enemy. [Note: George Bush did this by the way…]

Begging The Questions
A circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the premise.
Example: The word of Zorbo the Great is flawless and perfect. We know this because it says so in The Great and Infallible Book of Zorbo’s Best and Most Truest Things that are Definitely True and Should Not Ever Be Questioned.

Appeal To Authority
Using the opinion or position of an authority figure, or institution of authority, in place of an actual argument.
Example: When an individual states that vaccines are safe just because doctors say so, even though countless studies can be cited to eviscerate the ‘safety’ argument.

Appeal To Nature
Making the argument that because something is ‘natural’ it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, good, or ideal.
Example: The medicine man rolled into town on his bandwagon offering various natural remedies, such as very special plain water. He said that it was only natural that people should be wary of ‘artificial’ medicines such as antibiotics. The converse is also true, which could be in a way called Appeal To Technology/Science.

Composition / Division
Assuming that what’s true about one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it.
Example: Daniel was a precocious child and had a liking for logic. He reasoned that atoms are invisible, and that he was made of atoms and therefore invisible too. Unfortunately, despite his thinky skills, he lost the game of hide and go seek.

Anecdotal
Using personal experience or an isolated example instead of a valid argument.
Example: Jason said that that was all cool and everything, but his grandfather smoked, like, 30 cigarettes a day and lived until 97 – so don’t believe everything you read about meta analyses of sound studies showing proven causal relationships.

Appeal To Emotion
Manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument.
Example: Luke didn’t want to eat his sheep’s brains with chopped liver and brussels sprouts, but his father told him to think about the poor, starving children in a third world country who weren’t fortunate enough to have any food at all.

The Fallacy Fallacy
Presuming that because a claim has been poorly argued, or a fallacy has been made, that it is necessarily wrong.
Example: Recognizing that Amanda had committed a fallacy in arguing that we should eat healthy food because a nutritionist said it was popular, Alyse said we should therefore eat bacon double cheeseburgers every day.

Tu Quoque
Avoiding having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser – answering criticism with criticism.
Example: The blue candidate accused the red candidate of committing the tu quoque fallacy. The red candidate responded by accusing the blue candidate of the same, after which ensued an hour of back and forth criticism with not much progress.

Personal Incredulity
Saying that because one finds something difficult to understand that it’s therefore not true.
Example: Kirk drew a picture of a fish and a human and with effusive disdain asked Richard if he really thought we were stupid enough to believe that a fish somehow turned into a human through just, like, random things happening over time.

Burden Of Proof
Saying that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove.
Examples: Bertrand declares that a teapot is, at this very moment, in orbit around the Sun between the Earth and Mars, and that because no one can prove him wrong his claim is therefore a valid one.

Ambiguity
Using double meanings or ambiguities of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth.
Example: When the judge asked the defendant why he hadn’t paid his parking fines, he said that he shouldn’t have to pay them because the sign said ‘Fine for parking here’ and so he naturally presumed that it would be fine to park there.

No True Scotsman
Making what could be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws of an argument.
Example: Angus declares that Scotsmen do not put sugar on their porridge, to which Lachlan points out that he is a Scotsman and puts sugar on his porridge. Furious, like atrue Scot, Angus yells that no true Scotsman sugars his porridge.

Genetic
Judging something good or bad on the basis of where it comes from, or from whom it comes.
Example: Accused on the 6 o’clock news of corruption and taking bribes, the senator said that we should all be very wary of the things we hear in the media, because we all know how very unreliable the media can be.

The Texas Sharpshooter
Cherry-picking data clusters to suit an argument, or finding a pattern to fit a presumption.
Example: The makers of Sugarette Candy Drinks point to research showing that of the five countries where Sugarette drinks sell the most units, three of them are in the top ten healthiest countries on Earth, therefore Sugarette drinks are healthy.

Middle Ground
Saying that a compromise, or middle point, between two extremes is the truth.
Example: Holly said that vaccinations are safe, but her scientifically well-read friend Caleb said that this claim was untrue because there were dozens of studies proving otherwise. Their friend Alice offered a compromise that vaccinations are sometimes safe.

___________________________________________________________
Sources:

http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/presidential-races/260210-sanders-doubles-down-climate-change-causes-terrorism
https://thebreakaway.wordpress.com/2015/12/14/80-studies-outlining-some-of-the-dangers-of-vaccinations/
https://web.ics.purdue.edu

___________________________________________________________
If you find value in this information, please share it.  This article is free and open source.  All individuals have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Zy Marquiez and  BreakawayIndividual.com
___________________________________________________________
Suggested Book Review Reading:

Socratic Logic by Peter Kreeft Ph.D.
Philosophy 101 by Peter Kreeft Ph.D.
How To Read A Book by Mortimer J. Adler and Charles Van Doren
Getting Things Done by David Allen
A Rulebook For Arguments by Anthony Weston
A Workbook For Arguments by David R. Morrow & Anthony Wesson

___________________________________________________________
About The Author:

Zy Marquiez is an avid book reviewer, inquirer, an open-minded skeptic, yogi, and freelance writer who aims at empowering individuals while also studying and regularly mirroring subjects like Consciousness, Education, Creativity, The Individual, Ancient History & Ancient Civilizations, Forbidden Archaeology, Big Pharma, Alternative Health, Space, Geoengineering, Social Engineering, Propaganda, and much more.